Double‐wavelet transform for multisubject task‐induced functional magnetic resonance imaging data

Early View

Abstract The goal of this article is to model multisubject task‐induced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response among predefined regions of interest (ROIs) of the human brain. Conventional approaches to fMRI analysis only take into account temporal correlations, but do not rigorously model the underlying spatial correlation due to the complexity of estimating and inverting the high dimensional spatio‐temporal covariance matrix. Other spatio‐temporal model approaches estimate the covariance matrix with the assumption of stationary time series, which is not always feasible. To address these limitations, we propose a double‐wavelet approach for modeling the spatio‐temporal brain process. Working with wavelet coefficients simplifies temporal and spatial covariance structure because under regularity conditions, wavelet coefficients are approximately uncorrelated. Different wavelet functions were used to capture different correlation structures in the spatio‐temporal model. The main advantages of the wavelet approach are that it is scalable and that it deals with nonstationarity in brain signals. Simulation studies showed that our method could reduce false‐positive and false‐negative rates by taking into account spatial and temporal correlations simultaneously. We also applied our method to fMRI data to study activation in prespecified ROIs in the prefontal cortex. Data analysis showed that the result using the double‐wavelet approach was more consistent than the conventional approach when sample size decreased.

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