Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice

The Needs Self‐Rating Questionnaire for Breast Cancer (NSQ‐BC): Development of a tool for the needs assessment of women with breast cancer in mainland China

Early View

  • Author(s): Kaina Zhou, Lanting Huo, Xiaole He, Minjie Li, Jinghua An, Wen Wang, Jin Li, Xiaomei Li
  • Article first published online: 17 Feb 2019
  • DOI: 10.1111/jep.13113
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Abstract Rationale, Aims, and Objectives A needs assessment tool considering the cultural background of mainland China has not been reported. This study developed a Needs Self‐rating Questionnaire for Breast Cancer (NSQ‐BC) based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs for mainland Chinese patients. Methods The Delphi technique and pilot cross‐sectional surveys (two rounds) were performed for item selection. In the Delphi technique, items were selected according to the experts' perspective on the item's significance (ie, 1‐5 Likert‐scale ratings of importance; mean > 4.0 and coefficients of variation <0.25). In the pilot cross‐sectional surveys, items were selected according to internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70), discriminant validity (stronger correlations of the item with the hypothesized subscale than for other subscales), and convergent validity (hypothesized item‐subscale correlations ≥0.40). All decisions were made based on the results of statistical analyses, recommendations of the experts, and in‐depth discussion among research team members. Results Following the two evaluation rounds, the revised NSQ‐BC comprised 26 items across five subscales of needs: physical, psychological, respect/self‐esteem, information, and rehabilitation. Item ratings from the expert panellists met the aforementioned criteria (ie, Kendall's W = 0.329, P < 0.001). Except for the “respect/self‐esteem needs” subscale, Cronbach's α for all subscales exceeded 0.70. All items had acceptable discriminant and convergent validity. Additionally, two new items—good environment/facilities and economic support—were added to the NSQ‐BC, as recommended by the experts. Conclusions The NSQ‐BC was developed fully via the comprehensive use of Delphi technique and pilot cross‐sectional surveys. It provides evidence of a proper instrument for needs assessment and evaluation among women with breast cancer in mainland China.

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