Risk Analysis

Risks of Allergic Contact Dermatitis Elicited by Nickel, Chromium, and Organic Sensitizers: Quantitative Models Based on Clinical Patch Test Data

Journal Article


Risks of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from consumer products intended for extended (nonpiercing) dermal contact are regulated by E.U. Directive EN 1811 that limits released Ni to a weekly equivalent dermal load of ≤0.5 μg/cm2. Similar approaches for thousands of known organic sensitizers are hampered by inability to quantify respective ACD‐elicitation risk levels. To help address this gap, normalized values of cumulative risk for eliciting a positive (“≥+”) clinical patch test response reported in 12 studies for a total of n = 625 Ni‐sensitized patients were modeled in relation to observed ACD‐eliciting Ni loads, yielding an approximate lognormal (LN) distribution with a geometric mean and standard deviation of GMNi = 15 μg/cm2 and GSDNi = 8.0, respectively. Such data for five sensitizers (including formaldehyde and 2‐hydroxyethyl methacrylate) were also ∼LN distributed, but with a common GSD value equal to GSDNi and with heterogeneous sensitizer‐specific GM values each defining a respective ACD‐eliciting potency GMNi/GM relative to Ni. Such potencies were also estimated for nine (meth)acrylates by applying this general LN ACD‐elicitation risk model to respective sets of fewer data. ACD‐elicitation risk patterns observed for Cr(VI) (n = 417) and Cr(III) (n = 78) were fit to mixed‐LN models in which ∼30% and ∼40% of the most sensitive responders, respectively, were estimated to exhibit a LN response also governed by GSDNi. The observed common LN‐response shape parameter GSDNi may reflect a common underlying ACD mechanism and suggests a common interim approach to quantitative ACD‐elicitation risk assessment based on available clinical data.

Related Topics

Related Publications

Related Content

Site Footer


This website is provided by John Wiley & Sons Limited, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ (Company No: 00641132, VAT No: 376766987)

Published features on StatisticsViews.com are checked for statistical accuracy by a panel from the European Network for Business and Industrial Statistics (ENBIS)   to whom Wiley and StatisticsViews.com express their gratitude. This panel are: Ron Kenett, David Steinberg, Shirley Coleman, Irena Ograjenšek, Fabrizio Ruggeri, Rainer Göb, Philippe Castagliola, Xavier Tort-Martorell, Bart De Ketelaere, Antonio Pievatolo, Martina Vandebroek, Lance Mitchell, Gilbert Saporta, Helmut Waldl and Stelios Psarakis.