Quality and Reliability Engineering International

Electromigration, models and atomistic interpretation

Journal Article

Abstract

Fundamental aspects of electromigration in Al‐lines of integrated circuits are reviewed, including vacancy diffusion, vacancy generation and annihilation. The latter processes give rise to the generation of mechanical stresses. Various models and computer simulations on electromigration are compiled and their influence on the parameters in Black's equations is discussed. The beneficial effect of a (111) texture is explained by the concomitant formation of a large number of tilt grain boundaries and the low diffusivity of atoms perpendicular to the tilt axis of these boundaries.

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