Risk Analysis

CSP Deposition to the Alveolar Region of the Lung: Implications of Cigarette Design

Journal Article

Ventilated cigarettes were designed to reduce the levels of smoke under machine testing conditions; however, smokers alter their smoking pattern to compensate for the reduction in yields. A relative shift in incidence of lung cancer from the more central lung airways to the alveolar region has also been associated with ventilated cigarette use. Validated mathematical models indicate that particle deposition patterns in the lung depend on particle size and inhalation behavior, including inhalation volume, flow rate, and breath‐hold time. This article finds that most mathematical models underpredict total cigarette smoke particulate (CSP) deposition in the lung, likely because they do not account for coagulation, hygroscopicity, and cloud dynamics, which may increase the effective particle diameter of CSP reaching the lung tissue. The models that include these processes indicate that puff volume would be unlikely to affect particle deposition in the lung, but puff time, inhalation depth, breath‐hold time, and exhalation time may affect total deposition. Most compensation appears to occur through a combination of increased puff volume and puff flow, with possible increases in inhalation depth and breath‐hold time. The complex interaction between the extent of cigarette ventilation, which can affect puffing/inhalation behavior, CSP concentration, and CSP size with CSP dose to the alveolar versus more central lung airways is described. Deposition efficiency in the alveoli could plausibly be increased through compensation, but it is still unclear whether compensation could sufficiently alter patterns of CSP deposition in the lung to elicit a shift in lung cancer sites.

Related Topics

Related Publications

Related Content

Site Footer


This website is provided by John Wiley & Sons Limited, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ (Company No: 00641132, VAT No: 376766987)

Published features on StatisticsViews.com are checked for statistical accuracy by a panel from the European Network for Business and Industrial Statistics (ENBIS)   to whom Wiley and StatisticsViews.com express their gratitude. This panel are: Ron Kenett, David Steinberg, Shirley Coleman, Irena Ograjenšek, Fabrizio Ruggeri, Rainer Göb, Philippe Castagliola, Xavier Tort-Martorell, Bart De Ketelaere, Antonio Pievatolo, Martina Vandebroek, Lance Mitchell, Gilbert Saporta, Helmut Waldl and Stelios Psarakis.