International Statistical Review

Analysing Your Multivariate Data as a Pictorial: A Case for Applying Biplot Methodology?

Journal Article


This paper illustrates the versatility of biplot methodology when analysing multivariate data from diverse disciplines. The modern approach of Gower & Hand (1996) whereby biplots are regarded as multivariate analogues of ordinary scatter plots is utilised for extending biplot methodology introducing several novel applications. Focus is on biplot applications where the merits of principal component biplots and canonical variate analysis biplots are illustrated with data sets from higher education, the manufacturing industry, the mining industry, agriculture, finance and archaeology. It is shown how to equip biplots with quality regions, classification regions and acceptance regions; how a‐bags superimposed on biplots provide a quantification of the multidimensional overlap of classes as well as enable biplots to be used with large data sets; how to use biplots for exploring multi‐dimensional reality and in sophisticated classification procedures.

Related Topics

Related Publications

Related Content

Site Footer


This website is provided by John Wiley & Sons Limited, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ (Company No: 00641132, VAT No: 376766987)

Published features on are checked for statistical accuracy by a panel from the European Network for Business and Industrial Statistics (ENBIS)   to whom Wiley and express their gratitude. This panel are: Ron Kenett, David Steinberg, Shirley Coleman, Irena Ograjenšek, Fabrizio Ruggeri, Rainer Göb, Philippe Castagliola, Xavier Tort-Martorell, Bart De Ketelaere, Antonio Pievatolo, Martina Vandebroek, Lance Mitchell, Gilbert Saporta, Helmut Waldl and Stelios Psarakis.