Australian & New Zealand Journal of Statistics

Applications: The Surrogate Henderson Filters in X‐11

Journal Article

This paper explains the surrogate Henderson filters that are used in the X‐11 variant of the Census Method II seasonal adjustment program to obtain trends at the ends of time series. It describes a prediction interpretation for these surrogate filters, justifies an approximation to the filters, proposed by Kenny & Durbin (1982), and proposes a further interpretation of the results. The starting point for the paper is unpublished work by Musgrave (1964a, 1964b). His work has continuing relevance to current seasonal adjustment practice. This paper makes that work generally available for the first time, and reviews and extends it.

Related Topics

Related Publications

Related Content

Site Footer


This website is provided by John Wiley & Sons Limited, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ (Company No: 00641132, VAT No: 376766987)

Published features on are checked for statistical accuracy by a panel from the European Network for Business and Industrial Statistics (ENBIS)   to whom Wiley and express their gratitude. This panel are: Ron Kenett, David Steinberg, Shirley Coleman, Irena Ograjenšek, Fabrizio Ruggeri, Rainer Göb, Philippe Castagliola, Xavier Tort-Martorell, Bart De Ketelaere, Antonio Pievatolo, Martina Vandebroek, Lance Mitchell, Gilbert Saporta, Helmut Waldl and Stelios Psarakis.