Data Mining for Business Analytics: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications with JMP Pro
Books
- Published: 18 July 2016
- ISBN: 9781118877432
- Author(s): Galit Shmueli, Peter C. Bruce, Mia L. Stephens, Nitin R. Patel
- View full details
- Buy the book
Data Mining for Business Analytics: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications with JMP Pro® presents an applied and interactive approach to data mining.
Featuring hands-on applications with JMP Pro®, a statistical package from the SAS Institute, the book
uses engaging, real-world examples to build a theoretical and practical understanding of key data mining methods, especially predictive models for classification and prediction. Topics include data visualization, dimension reduction techniques, clustering, linear and logistic regression, classification and regression trees, discriminant analysis, naive Bayes, neural networks, uplift modeling, ensemble models, and time series forecasting.
Data Mining for Business Analytics: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications with JMP Pro® also includes:
- Detailed summaries that supply an outline of key topics at the beginning of each chapter
- End-of-chapter examples and exercises that allow readers to expand their comprehension of the presented material
- Data-rich case studies to illustrate various applications of data mining techniques
- A companion website with over two dozen data sets, exercises and case study solutions, and slides for instructors www.dataminingbook.com
Data Mining for Business Analytics: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications with JMP Pro® is an excellent textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate-level courses on data mining, predictive analytics, and business analytics. The book is also a one-of-a-kind resource for data scientists, analysts, researchers, and practitioners working with analytics in the fields of management, finance, marketing, information technology, healthcare, education, and any other data-rich field.
FOREWORD xvii
PREFACE xix
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxi
PART I PRELIMINARIES
1 Introduction 3
1.1 What Is Business Analytics? 3
Who Uses Predictive Analytics? 4
1.2 What Is Data Mining? 5
1.3 Data Mining and Related Terms 5
1.4 Big Data 6
1.5 Data Science 7
1.6 Why Are There So Many Different Methods? 7
1.7 Terminology and Notation 8
1.8 Roadmap to This Book 10
Order of Topics 11
Using JMP Pro, Statistical Discovery Software from SAS 11
2 Overview of the Data Mining Process 14
2.1 Introduction 14
2.2 Core Ideas in Data Mining 15
Classification 15
Prediction 15
Association Rules and Recommendation Systems 15
Predictive Analytics 16
Data Reduction and Dimension Reduction 16
Data Exploration and Visualization 16
Supervised and Unsupervised Learning 16
2.3 The Steps in Data Mining 17
2.4 Preliminary Steps 19
Organization of Datasets 19
Sampling from a Database 19
Oversampling Rare Events in Classification Tasks 19
Preprocessing and Cleaning the Data 20
Changing Modeling Types in JMP 20
Standardizing Data in JMP 25
2.5 Predictive Power and Overfitting 25
Creation and Use of Data Partitions 25
Partitioning Data for Crossvalidation in JMP Pro 27
Overfitting 27
2.6 Building a Predictive Model with JMP Pro 29
Predicting Home Values in a Boston Neighborhood 29
Modeling Process 30
Setting the Random Seed in JMP 34
2.7 Using JMP Pro for Data Mining 38
2.8 Automating Data Mining Solutions 40
Data Mining Software Tools: the State of theMarket by Herb Edelstein 41
Problems 44
PART II DATA EXPLORATION AND DIMENSION REDUCTION
3 Data Visualization 51
3.1 Uses of Data Visualization 51
3.2 Data Examples 52
Example 1: Boston Housing Data 53
Example 2: Ridership on Amtrak Trains 53
3.3 Basic Charts: Bar Charts, Line Graphs, and Scatterplots 54
Using The JMP Graph Builder 54
Distribution Plots: Boxplots and Histograms 56
Tools for Data Visualization in JMP 59
Heatmaps (Color Maps and Cell Plots): Visualizing Correlations and Missing Values 59
3.4 Multidimensional Visualization 61
Adding Variables: Color, Size, Shape, Multiple Panels, and Animation 62
Manipulations: Rescaling, Aggregation and Hierarchies, Zooming, Filtering 65
Reference: Trend Lines and Labels 68
Adding Trendlines in the Graph Builder 69
Scaling Up: Large Datasets 70
Multivariate Plot: Parallel Coordinates Plot 71
Interactive Visualization 72
3.5 Specialized Visualizations 73
Visualizing Networked Data 74
Visualizing Hierarchical Data: More on Treemaps 75
Visualizing Geographical Data: Maps 76
3.6 Summary of Major Visualizations and Operations, According to Data
Mining Goal 77
Prediction 77
Classification 78
Time Series Forecasting 78
Unsupervised Learning 79
Problems 79
4 Dimension Reduction 81
4.1 Introduction 81
4.2 Curse of Dimensionality 82
4.3 Practical Considerations 82
Example 1: House Prices in Boston 82
4.4 Data Summaries 83
Summary Statistics 83
Tabulating Data (Pivot Tables) 85
4.5 Correlation Analysis 87
4.6 Reducing the Number of Categories in Categorical Variables 87
4.7 Converting a Categorical Variable to a Continuous Variable 90
4.8 Principal Components Analysis 90
Example 2: Breakfast Cereals 91
Principal Components 95
Normalizing the Data 97
Using Principal Components for Classification and Prediction 100
4.9 Dimension Reduction Using Regression Models 100
4.10 Dimension Reduction Using Classification and Regression Trees 100
Problems 101
PART III PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
5 Evaluating Predictive Performance 105
5.1 Introduction 105
5.2 Evaluating Predictive Performance 106
Benchmark: The Average 106
Prediction Accuracy Measures 107
Comparing Training and Validation Performance 108
5.3 Judging Classifier Performance 109
Benchmark: The Naive Rule 109
Class Separation 109
The Classification Matrix 109
Using the Validation Data 111
Accuracy Measures 111
Propensities and Cutoff for Classification 112
Cutoff Values for Triage 112
Changing the Cutoff Values for a Confussion Matrix in JMP 114
Performance in Unequal Importance of Classes 115
False-Positive and False-Negative Rates 116
Asymmetric Misclassification Costs 116
Asymmetric Misclassification Costs in JMP 119
Generalization to More Than Two Classes 120
5.4 Judging Ranking Performance 120
Lift Curves 120
Beyond Two Classes 122
Lift Curves Incorporating Costs and Benefits 122
5.5 Oversampling 123
Oversampling the Training Set 126
Stratified Sampling and Oversampling in JMP 126
Evaluating Model Performance Using a Nonoversampled Validation Set 126
Evaluating Model Performance If Only Oversampled Validation Set Exists 127
Applying Sampling Weights in JMP 128
Problems 129
PART IV PREDICTION AND CLASSIFICATION METHODS
6 Multiple Linear Regression 133
6.1 Introduction 133
6.2 Explanatory versus Predictive Modeling 134
6.3 Estimating the Regression Equation and Prediction 135
Example: Predicting the Price of Used Toyota Corolla Automobiles 136
Coding of Categorical Variables in Regression 138
Additional Options for Regression Models in JMP 140
6.4 Variable Selection in Linear Regression 141
Reducing the Number of Predictors 141
How to Reduce the Number of Predictors 142
Manual Variable Selection 142
Automated Variable Selection 142
Coding of Categorical Variables in Stepwise Regression 143
Working with the All Possible Models Output 145
When Using a Stopping Algorithm in JMP 147
Other Regression Procedures in JMP Pro—Generalized Regression 149
Problems 150
7 k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) 155
7.1 The 𝑘-NN Classifier (Categorical Outcome) 155
Determining Neighbors 155
Classification Rule 156
Example: Riding Mowers 156
Choosing 𝑘 157
𝑘 Nearest Neighbors in JMP Pro 158
The Cutoff Value for Classification 159
𝑘-NN Predictions and Prediction Formulas in JMP Pro 161
𝑘-NN with More Than Two Classes 161
7.2 𝑘-NN for a Numerical Response 161
Pandora 161
7.3 Advantages and Shortcomings of 𝑘-NN Algorithms 163
Problems 164
8 The Naive Bayes Classifier 167
8.1 Introduction 167
Naive Bayes Method 167
Cutoff Probability Method 168
Conditional Probability 168
Example 1: Predicting Fraudulent Financial Reporting 168
8.2 Applying the Full (Exact) Bayesian Classifier 169
Using the ‘‘Assign to the Most Probable Class’’ Method 169
Using the Cutoff Probability Method 169
Practical Difficulty with the Complete (Exact) Bayes Procedure 170
Solution: Naive Bayes 170
Example 2: Predicting Fraudulent Financial Reports, Two Predictors 172
Using the JMP Naive Bayes Add-in 174
Example 3: Predicting Delayed Flights 174
8.3 Advantages and Shortcomings of the Naive Bayes Classifier 179
Spam Filtering 179
Problems 180
9 Classification and Regression Trees 183
9.1 Introduction 183
9.2 Classification Trees 184
Recursive Partitioning 184
Example 1: Riding Mowers 185
Categorical Predictors 186
9.3 Growing a Tree 187
Growing a Tree Example 187
Classifying a New Observation 188
Fitting Classification Trees in JMP Pro 191
Growing a Tree with CART 192
9.4 Evaluating the Performance of a Classification Tree 192
Example 2: Acceptance of Personal Loan 192
9.5 Avoiding Overfitting 193
Stopping Tree Growth: CHAID 194
Growing a Full Tree and Pruning It Back 194
How JMP Limits Tree Size 196
9.6 Classification Rules from Trees 196
9.7 Classification Trees for More Than Two Classes 198
9.8 Regression Trees 199
Prediction 199
Evaluating Performance 200
9.9 Advantages and Weaknesses of a Tree 200
9.10 Improving Prediction: Multiple Trees 204
Fitting Ensemble Tree Models in JMP Pro 206
9.11 CART and Measures of Impurity 207
Problems 207
10 Logistic Regression 211
10.1 Introduction 211
Logistic Regression and Consumer Choice Theory 212
10.2 The Logistic Regression Model 213
Example: Acceptance of Personal Loan (Universal Bank) 214
Indicator (Dummy) Variables in JMP 216
Model with a Single Predictor 216
Fitting One Predictor Logistic Models in JMP 218
Estimating the Logistic Model from Data: Multiple Predictors 218
Fitting Logistic Models in JMP with More Than One Predictor 221
10.3 Evaluating Classification Performance 221
Variable Selection 222
10.4 Example of Complete Analysis: Predicting Delayed Flights 223
Data Preprocessing 225
Model Fitting, Estimation and Interpretation---A Simple Model 226
Model Fitting, Estimation and Interpretation---The Full Model 227
Model Performance 229
Variable Selection 230
Regrouping and Recoding Variables in JMP 232
10.5 Appendixes: Logistic Regression for Profiling 234
Appendix A: Why Linear Regression Is Problematic for a
Categorical Response 234
Appendix B: Evaluating Explanatory Power 236
Appendix C: Logistic Regression for More Than Two Classes 238
Nominal Classes 238
Problems 241
11 Neural Nets 245
11.1 Introduction 245
11.2 Concept and Structure of a Neural Network 246
11.3 Fitting a Network to Data 246
Example 1: Tiny Dataset 246
Computing Output of Nodes 248
Preprocessing the Data 251
Activation Functions and Data Processing Features in JMP Pro 251
Training the Model 251
Fitting a Neural Network in JMP Pro 254
Using the Output for Prediction and Classification 256
Example 2: Classifying Accident Severity 258
Avoiding overfitting 259
11.4 User Input in JMP Pro 260
Unsupervised Feature Extraction and Deep Learning 263
11.5 Exploring the Relationship between Predictors and Response 264
Understanding Neural Models in JMP Pro 264
11.6 Advantages and Weaknesses of Neural Networks 264
Problems 265
12 Discriminant Analysis 268
12.1 Introduction 268
Example 1: Riding Mowers 269
Example 2: Personal Loan Acceptance (Universal Bank) 269
12.2 Distance of an Observation from a Class 270
12.3 From Distances to Propensities and Classifications 272
Linear Discriminant Analysis in JMP 275
12.4 Classification Performance of Discriminant Analysis 275
12.5 Prior Probabilities 277
12.6 Classifying More Than Two Classes 278
Example 3: Medical Dispatch to Accident Scenes 278
Using Categorical Predictors in Discriminant Analysis in JMP 279
12.7 Advantages and Weaknesses 280
Problems 282
13 Combining Methods: Ensembles and Uplift Modeling 285
13.1 Ensembles 285
Why Ensembles Can Improve Predictive Power 286
The Wisdom of Crowds 287
Simple Averaging 287
Bagging 288
Boosting 288
Creating Ensemble Models in JMP Pro 289
Advantages and Weaknesses of Ensembles 289
13.2 Uplift (Persuasion) Modeling 290
A-B Testing 290
Uplift 290
Gathering the Data 291
A Simple Model 292
Modeling Individual Uplift 293
Using the Results of an Uplift Model 294
Creating Uplift Models in JMP Pro 294
Using the Uplift Platform in JMP Pro 295
13.3 Summary 295
Problems 297
PART V MINING RELATIONSHIPS AMONG RECORDS
14 Cluster Analysis 301
14.1 Introduction 301
Example: Public Utilities 302
14.2 Measuring Distance between Two Observations 305
Euclidean Distance 305
Normalizing Numerical Measurements 305
Other Distance Measures for Numerical Data 306
Distance Measures for Categorical Data 308
Distance Measures for Mixed Data 308
14.3 Measuring Distance between Two Clusters 309
Minimum Distance 309
Maximum Distance 309
Average Distance 309
Centroid Distance 309
14.4 Hierarchical (Agglomerative) Clustering 311
Hierarchical Clustering in JMP and JMP Pro 311
Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering Algorithm 312
Single Linkage 312
Complete Linkage 313
Average Linkage 313
Centroid Linkage 313
Ward’s Method 314
Dendrograms: Displaying Clustering Process and Results 314
Validating Clusters 316
Two-Way Clustering 318
Limitations of Hierarchical Clustering 319
14.5 Nonhierarchical Clustering: The 𝑘-Means Algorithm 320
𝑘-Means Clustering Algorithm 321
Initial Partition into 𝐾 Clusters 322
𝐾-Means Clustering in JMP 322
Problems 329
PART VI FORECASTING TIME SERIES
15 Handling Time Series 335
15.1 Introduction 335
15.2 Descriptive versus Predictive Modeling 336
15.3 Popular Forecasting Methods in Business 337
Combining Methods 337
15.4 Time Series Components 337
Example: Ridership on Amtrak Trains 337
15.5 Data Partitioning and Performance Evaluation 341
Benchmark Performance: Naive Forecasts 342
Generating Future Forecasts 342
Partitioning Time Series Data in JMP and Validating
Time Series Models 342
Problems 343
16 Regression-Based Forecasting 346
16.1 A Model with Trend 346
Linear Trend 346
Fitting a Model with Linear Trend in JMP 348
Creating Actual versus Predicted Plots and Residual Plots in JMP 350
Exponential Trend 350
Computing Forecast Errors for Exponential Trend Models 352
Polynomial Trend 352
Fitting a Polynomial Trend in JMP 353
16.2 A Model with Seasonality 353
16.3 A Model with Trend and Seasonality 356
16.4 Autocorrelation and ARIMA Models 356
Computing Autocorrelation 356
Improving Forecasts by Integrating Autocorrelation Information 360
Fitting AR (Autoregression) Models in the JMP Time Series
Platform 361
Fitting AR Models to Residuals 361
Evaluating Predictability 363
Summary: Fitting Regression-Based Time Series Models in JMP 365
Problems 366
17 Smoothing Methods 377
17.1 Introduction 377
17.2 Moving Average 378
Centered Moving Average for Visualization 378
Trailing Moving Average for Forecasting 379
Computing a Trailing Moving Average Forecast in JMP 380
Choosing Window Width (𝑤) 382
17.3 Simple Exponential Smoothing 382
Choosing Smoothing Parameter 𝛼 383
Fitting Simple Exponential Smoothing Models in JMP 384
Creating Plots for Actual versus Forecasted Series and Residuals Series Using the Graph Builder 386
Relation between Moving Average and Simple Exponential Smoothing 386
17.4 Advanced Exponential Smoothing 387
Series with a Trend 387
Series with a Trend and Seasonality 388
Problems 390
PART VII CASES
18 Cases 402
18.1 Charles Book Club 401
The Book Industry 401
Database Marketing at Charles 402
Data Mining Techniques 403
Assignment 405
18.2 German Credit 409
Background 409
Data 409
Assignment 409
18.3 Tayko Software Cataloger 410
Background 410
The Mailing Experiment 413
Data 413
Assignment 413
18.4 Political Persuasion 415
Background 415
Predictive Analytics Arrives in US Politics 415
Political Targeting 416
Uplift 416
Data 417
Assignment 417
18.5 Taxi Cancellations 419
Business Situation 419
Assignment 419
18.6 Segmenting Consumers of Bath Soap 420
Business Situation 420
Key Problems 421
Data 421
Measuring Brand Loyalty 421
Assignment 421
18.7 Direct-Mail Fundraising 423
Background 423
Data 424
Assignment 425
18.8 Predicting Bankruptcy 425
Predicting Corporate Bankruptcy 426
Assignment 428
18.9 Time Series Case: Forecasting Public Transportation Demand 428
Background 428
Problem Description 428
Available Data 428
Assignment Goal 429
Assignment 429
Tips and Suggested Steps 429
References 431
Data Files Used in the Book 433
Index 435
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