Statistical Methods for Food Science: Introductory Procedures for the Food Practitioner, 2nd Edition


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The recording and analysis of food data are becoming  increasingly sophisticated. Consequently, the food scientist in industry or at study faces the task of using and understanding statistical methods. Statistics is often viewed as a difficult subject and is often avoided because of its complexity and a lack of specific application to the requirements of food science. This situation is changing – there is now much material on multivariate applications for the more advanced reader, but a case exists for a  univariate approach aimed at the non-statistician.

This second edition of Statistical Methods for Food Science provides a source text on accessible statistical procedures for the food scientist, and is aimed at professionals and students in food laboratories where analytical, instrumental and sensory data are gathered and require some form of summary and analysis before interpretation. It is suitable for the food analyst, the sensory scientist and the product developer, and others who work in food-related disciplines involving consumer survey investigations will also find many sections of use. There is an emphasis on a ‘hands-on’ approach, and worked examples using computer software packages and the minimum of mathematical formulae are included. The book is based on the experience and practice of a scientist engaged for many years in research and teaching of analytical and sensory food science at undergraduate and post-graduate level.

This revised and updated second edition is accompanied by a new companion website giving the reader access to the datasets and Excel spreadsheets featured in the book. Check it out now by visiting or by scanning the QR code below.

Preface ix

About the companion website xi

Acknowledgements xiii

Part I Introduction and basics

Chapter 1 Basics and terminology 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 What the book will cover 4

1.3 The importance of statistics 6

1.4 Applications of statistical procedures in food science 6

1.5 Focus and terminology 9

References 12

Software sources and links 13

Chapter 2 The nature of data and their collection 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 The nature of data 15

2.3 Collection of data and sampling 26

2.4 Populations 36

References 42

Chapter 3 Descriptive statistics 44

3.1 Introduction 44

3.2 Tabular and graphical displays 45

3.3 Descriptive statistic measures 59

3.4 Measurement uncertainty 69

3.5 Determination of population nature and variance homogeneity 86

References 89

Chapter 4 Analysis of differences – significance testing 91

4.1 Introduction 91

4.2 Significance (hypothesis) testing 92

4.3 Assumptions of significance tests 102

4.4 Stages in a significance test 103

4.5 Selection of significance tests 108

4.6 Parametric or non-parametric tests 112

References 113

Chapter 5 Types of significance test 114

5.1 Introduction 114

5.2 General points 114

5.3 Significance tests for nominal data (non-parametric) 115

5.4 Significance tests for ordinal data (non-parametric) 122

5.5 Significance tests for interval and ratio data (parametric) 129

References 139

Chapter 6 Association, correlation and regression 141

6.1 Introduction 141

6.2 Association 142

6.3 Correlation 144

6.4 Regression 149

References 153

Chapter 7 Experimental design 155

7.1 Introduction 155

7.2 Terminology and general procedure 155

7.3 Sources of experimental error and its reduction 159

7.4 Types of design 164

7.5 Analysis methods and issues 174

7.6 Applicability of designs 176

References 176

Part II Applications

Chapter 8 Sensory and consumer data 181

8.1 Introduction 181

8.2 The quality and nature of sensory and consumer data 181

8.3 Experimental design issues 183

8.4 Consumer data (sensory and survey) 183

8.5 Trained panel sensory data 199

8.6 Analysis of relationships 216

References 216

Chapter 9 Instrumental data 219

9.1 Introduction 219

9.2 Quality and nature of instrumental data 219

9.3 Sampling and replication 222

9.4 Experimental design issues 224

9.5 Statistical analysis of instrumental data 226

9.6 Chemical analysis applications 228

9.7 Analysis of relationships 244

References 244

Chapter 10 Food product formulation 246

10.1 Introduction 246

10.2 Design application in food product development 246

10.3 Single ingredient effects 248

10.4 Two or more ingredients 252

10.5 Screening of many ingredients 257

10.6 Formulation by constraints 263

References 269

Chapter 11 Statistical quality control 271

11.1 Introduction 271

11.2 Types of statistical quality control 272

11.3 Sampling procedures 273

11.4 Control charts 274

11.5 Acceptance sampling 288

References 292

Chapter 12 Multivariate applications 293

12.1 Introduction 293

12.2 Multivariate methods and their characteristics 293

12.3 Multivariate modes 294

12.4 Relationship of consumer preference with sensory measures 310

References 311

Index 313

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Published features on are checked for statistical accuracy by a panel from the European Network for Business and Industrial Statistics (ENBIS)   to whom Wiley and express their gratitude. This panel are: Ron Kenett, David Steinberg, Shirley Coleman, Irena Ograjenšek, Fabrizio Ruggeri, Rainer Göb, Philippe Castagliola, Xavier Tort-Martorell, Bart De Ketelaere, Antonio Pievatolo, Martina Vandebroek, Lance Mitchell, Gilbert Saporta, Helmut Waldl and Stelios Psarakis.